Here I have listed the common variety of lock picks and related tools. Keep in mind however that there are thousands of lockpick profiles that can range from utterly niche to seemingly useless. Tools listed with a black star are picks or wrenches I consider absolutely mandatory for an every day carry (EDC) kit.

What does my EDC contain? Peterson Gem (.018), Peterson H1 (.018 and .025), Peterson H7 (.018), Peterson Bogie (.025), 4 assorted Southord hooks, Southord Wave Rake (.025), Southord City Rake (.025), Southord Half-Ball, a set of warded picks, a Peterson mini-knife, a set of Sparrows comb-bars, assorted wiper wrenches, a dimple wrench, a pair of .040mm and .050mm prybar wrenches and one dual-prong wrench, all contained in a HPC leather case.
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Single-Pin Picks
Short Hook. This is your most used, absolutely essential pick for single-pin picking. The size of the hook can vary anywhere between incredibly shallow to a medium reach. I personally use a Peterson Hook 1, however the Southord Slimline MSL-07 is a great backup that has served me well hundreds of times.

Long Hook. Also known as a 'Gonzo Hook' or 'Steep Hook'. Useful for reaching pins that are behind longer cut pins. My preferred long hooks would be the Peterson Hook 5 or 7, depending on reach needed.

Diamond. A standard in most kits, but I find myself rarely using this pick. The size of the diamond can vary from small to fairly large. Sometimes these are used to zip-rake the lock, though I rarely use this technique.
Deforest. Also known as 'Offset' or 'Hooked'. Similar to the Long Hook, this pick is useful for setting pins that have low-set pins neighboring them. The offsetting of the stem allows for alternative angles when using this approach. The profile is typically Diamond or rounded.
Peterson Reach. Similar to Deforest picks in reach and practicality. This pick is a unique design created by Peterson.
Peterson Gem. Somewhere between a medium hook and a diamond in profile, I find myself using this pick nearly as much as a standard short hook. Sparrows offers a variant on this design named the 'High HD'. Highly recommended.
Flag. Flag picks, or Dimple picks, are specifically used for single-pin picking dimple locks, often in conjunction with a dimple styled tension wrench.

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Raking Picks
Wave Rake. Also known as an S-Rake. Wave rakes have two or three peaks on average and are considered the 'baseline' pick for raking (much like the short hook is for single-pin picking). If my Bogota or Worm won't do the job, this is typically the pick I'll reach for. It should be noted that this will most likely be the first pick you ever break.

City Rake. Named after it's skyline-like appearance, though it it sometimes called an 'L-Rake'. This pick is unique in that it's intended method involves more of a see-saw rocking motion. However, it can be used exactly as a standard rake as well.
Snake Rake. Sometimes referred to as a 'C-Rake'. Not much to say as I find myself using this pick the least, but it does have it's time and place and has charmed many a Masterlock. Can also be handy for raking Wafer locks.
Bogota. Also known as a Bogie (via Peterson) or a Pagoda (via Southord). This is by far one of the most effective raking picks. It comes in many different styles, including single peaked, twin peaked, triple peaked, spaced peaks, and a solid body variant. I personally use the triple-peak variety pictured.

W-Rake. I personally have never used nor owned this pick, but it is worth mentioning as it is a fairly known rake profile.
Sparrows Worm. Similar to the Bogota, but with a smoother, rounded profile. This pick is rivaled only by the Bogota in it's usefulness for raking attacks.

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Wafer and Disc Tumbler Picks
Ball. Not much to say about these picks. They serve one function and that is to rake wafer locks without getting hung up on the sharper wafer edges.
Half-Ball. Same as the Ball above, but for people who prefer to pick one side of the lock at a time.
Snowman. Also known as a Double-Ball, if you're boring. Again, used specifically to pick Wafer locks. Also comes in a Half-Snowman variety.
Double-Sided. Also known as 'Chicago Style' picks. These are useful for opening Wafer locks with little time or effort.

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Misc Tools
Warded Picks. These are used by inserting the correct profile into a warded lock and turning it as you would a key. Though useful, warded locks aren't as common to come across as they are low security. I do however keep a set in my EDC, just in case.

Mini-Knives. These incredibly thin (.0007) shivs can be placed between the wheels of many combination locks to press the release mechanism or decode the number sequence. They also serve a secondary purpose as a makeshift handcuff bypass by slipping between the ratchet housing and latch.

Comb Picks. Many locks, such as the Masterlock 140 and 150, have housings that allow both sets of pins to be pressed fully into the lock body, therefore bypassing the need to set the upper pins entirely and allowing the plug to turn freely. I recommend the Sparrows set that contain comb picks on one end and prybar wrenches on the other.
Snap Gun. On a weak enough lock, these are often the quickest way to set the driver pins. You'll often see police and military using these. It uses a quick spring loaded attack that sees the keys pins hitting the driver pins above the shearline, allowing the plug to turn within that fraction of time. A neat (albeit noisy) alternative to raking attacks.
Disc Detainer Pick. An interesting tool used specifically for picking Disc Detainer locks, with the core method being the methodic, proper rotation of secure discs in the plug. I admittedly have no experience with picking these types of locks.

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Tension Tools
Z-Bar. Also known as a prybar or flat-bar, these are used for Top Of Keyway (TOK) tension. Many pickers prefer these as they free up valuable picking space below the pins. Many also find it useful to bend the wrenches into a more ergonomic, curved fashion. Typically when selecting a prybar to use, you opt for the thickest/snuggest fitting option.

Wiper Wrench. The classic method of applying tension while picking. Wiper wrenches are inserted in the Bottom Of Keyway (BOK) and come in a variety of thicknesses and styles, including twisted, double-ended and vinyl coated. It's always important to keep a good variety of these in your EDC kit.

Dimple Wrench. These BOK wrenches are typically sold in conjunction with Dimple (Flag) Pick sets, though I often find them quite useful in many other keyways.